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What is “vaccine-derived polio” and how much do you need to worry about?

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Polio has been almost wiped out all over the world, but now Known case in the United States for the first time in 9 years.. The person is not vaccinated, but the strain they are infected with is a type of so-called “vaccine-derived” polio. Let’s talk about what that means — No It means that polio vaccine should be avoided.

What is polio?

Polio is a virus that causes asymptomatic or mild symptoms such as the flu in most infected people, but it can also attack the nervous system, leading to paralysis and death.

Two polio vaccines have been developed in response. An injectable vaccine that killed the virus in the 1950s and an oral vaccine that used a live virus that was attenuated in the 1960s. (These are often referred to as the Salk and Sabin vaccines, respectively.) A Global eradication campaign Started in 1988, as of 2021, there were only six known cases of wild polio infection worldwide.

Eradication means immunizing people around the world with a particular focus on where polio is still endemic. Only humans can carry polio, so the goal is to make everyone immune to the disease. Then you will lose your host and die. Of the three types of wild polio, two have already been eradicated.

What does the vaccine do?

There are two types of polio vaccines, each with different risks and benefits, and are used in different parts of the world.

The Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) It is the only polio vaccine used in the United States since 2000 and is now Regular vaccines for babies here. The virus is inactivated and does not get sick, so it is the safest polio vaccine for those who get it. The virus contained in the vaccine does not spread to others.

The downside is that even if you are vaccinated conduct Infection with poliovirus can prevent you from getting sick, but it can still infect others.

Because of these strengths and weaknesses, it makes the most sense to use this vaccine where polio is not commonly found.you Personally If your neighborhood is infected, you will be protected from polio, but where outbreaks continue, it makes more sense to use a vaccine to prevent the infection.

The Oral polio vaccine (OPV) Polio is used in more common places. It prevents not only infection but also infection.

It also has a bonus feature that allows your body to actually spread vaccination Viruses to other people, basically vaccinated to them too. This can happen because the virus in the vaccine is “living” weaker. In addition to convenience, it is easy to manage. You don’t need a healthcare provider who knows how to inject. Someone needs to push a few drops of the vaccine into the child’s mouth or put a few drops in a sugar cube and eat it.

Because this vaccine uses a live attenuated virus Immunodeficiency.. It is also not recommended for households as it can spread.

However, OPV has several other important risks, which is why they are avoided in endemic polio-free areas. One is that, very rarely, the vaccine virus can cause paralysis (in the case of vaccine-derived paralytic polio, it is called VAPP). This is estimated to be one case for every 2.4 million doses given, or 0.00004%.

Second, in rare cases, the vaccine virus can mutate and make people sick.this is So-called “vaccine-derived polio”. Vaccinated people are protected from vaccine-derived polio, but can spread to unvaccinated people.

How can I prevent infection with vaccine-derived polio?

This is easy: get the polio vaccine.

Remember that people who have been vaccinated against polio are protected from polio. If you get the complete 3-dose series of IPV, the vaccine used in the United States, the efficacy is 99% to 100%.

Vaccine-derived polio is more susceptible Unvaccinated In case of contact with a virus. For example, if you are traveling to an area where OPV is commonly used, you need to make sure that you are vaccinated yourself. However, even if you do not travel, you may encounter people who have a polio strain derived from the vaccine (for example, they (Travel from where you are using this vaccine) and they will be able to pass you the virus.

This may have happened in the case reported in New York. The patient was paralyzed and was found to be infected with vaccine-derived polio. They were not vaccinated. Rockland County and New York State Health Department statement Advise vaccination for “unvaccinated individuals, including pregnant people, those who have not previously completed the polio vaccine series, or members of the community who are concerned about their exposure” ..

What is “vaccine-derived polio” and how much do you need to worry about?

Source link What is “vaccine-derived polio” and how much do you need to worry about?

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